Title - Use of Polymer Nano Composites for Gas Sensing Applications

Abstract - Polymer nanocomposites are polymer matrices reinforced with nano-scale fillers. The absorption and partial dissolution of the gas or vapor molecules in polymer matrix changes its properties which makes it possible to monitor these changes by measuring the electro-physical characteristics of the composites such as conductance and capacitance. Thus there is a possibility to separate the absorption function and the sensor transducer function of the device. The absorption function is played by the polymer matrix and the sensor function is played by the interconnected nanoparticles network. This separation provides the possibility of combining various polymer matrices with different filler nanoparticles thus allowing selective detection of some gas molecules if the polymer matrix absorbs them selectively. By varying the polymer matrix, sensor arrays can be manufactured and these are now extensively used for odor recognition and in various biosensor applications. New approaches are needed to solve environmental measurement problems associated with mobile sources for the measurements of CO, NOx, aromatic hydrocarbons HC and particulates. There is a need to develop fast, rapid, cost effective, low power, and non-intrusive rugged sensors that can be easily installed. In order to be useful as a sensor, the device and technique should be able to detect the emissions at relevant low concentrations. In order to fulfill these needs efforts have been focused on the use of highly organized ultrathin conducting polymer/metal oxide (SnO2 and/or TiO2 ) films for sensing of CO gas and NOx gases.Researchers have also developed a new type of electronic nose (e-nose) consisting of only five sensors made of hierarchically structured conductive polymer nanocomposites (CPC). This can serve as biomarkers for lung cancer and help in detection in breath analysis. Chemically synthesised copper/polyaniline (PANi) nanocomposite has been utilised as a chloroform sensor for ppm level vapour concentration. The sensing mechanism mainly involves adsorption-desorption of chloroform at metal cluster surfaces.

Title - Green Chemistry

Abstract - The scientific name of Thermocol is Extended Polystyrene (EPS). Polystyrene is basically a synthetic aromatic polymer derived from the monomer, Styrene, by polymerization. The development of EPS can be successfully traced to a German Company named BASF. It has a density ranging from 0.96-1.04 g/cc and a melting point of approximately 240 degree Celsius. The consumption of this non-degradable waste has increased manifold, since the past few years, so much so, that our city alone produces 1000kg of waste thermocol per day. This amounts to 3.65 lakh of waste thermocol deposition per year. The major issues concerning the disposal of this waste are: 1. Thermocol, being a benzene compound, cannot be thermally decomposed. 2. Since it is known to have antibacterial properties, its microbial decomposition is not possible. 3. Thermocol cannot be further disintegrated into smaller particles. Therefore, in order to protect our planet from this ever-increasing threat, some methods should be laid down to Recycle, Reuse and Reduce “Thermocol”. Our project basically revolves around reusing thermocol as a raw material in allied industries (in this case, an adhesive industry), thereby recycling it and reducing its deposition in the environment.

The major aspect covered in this project is to solubilize thermocol in the most appropriate solvent. In addition to this, on the basis of our theoretical knowledge and practical observations, we have short listed certain additives working as plasticizers and fillers in order to improve the efficacy of the adhesive formed. Tests like paraffin oil test was done to calculate the boiling point adhesive thus formed to confirm that the product thus obtained in the adhesive form is none other than polystyrene. Other test to check out the strength was carried out on Universal Testing Machine (UTM) and based upon the results, graph was plotted. The adhesive was found to be environment friendly, resistant to moisture and acids and economically viable.

The cost of this adhesive was found to be 3 times cheaper than the adhesive used for domestic purposes. Based upon all the above qualities, this project was also presented as market product where comparison between different market products was made with our made adhesive with respect to the drying time, strength, fluidity as well as cost factor. It was found out that our adhesive can also be introduced in the market with an additional advantage of being a recycled product. Apart for domestic uses, this adhesive was found to have numerous applications in various industries like rubber, plastic, glass and metal. As in the recent inspection, the adhesive which is being used in the wood industry had proved to be carcinogenic. On the contrary, our adhesive being non-toxic was majorly proposed for this industry. Taking into account all the advantages and wider applications, our adhesive was found out to be equivalent with the market products. But our basic objective, that is, to recycle and reuse thermocol, as a waste product, was achieved and a major threat to the environment can be eliminated in this manner.

Title - Optimized Technique to produce SO3 gas in sulfuric acid manufacturing plant

Abstract - SO3 is manufactured from SO2 and O2 in a catalytic reactor under optimum conditions of temperature and pressure.It is under these optimum conditions that we will obtain maximum conversion. The factors governing the conversion are temperature, pressure and relative ratio of the catalyst to the feed. The profit resulting from optimizing the SO2 conversion is critical for all the sulfuric acid plants due to the low profit obtained by the sales of sulfuric acid. Alternative methods are used to maximize profit. Therefore, optimization of SO2 conversion is important

Title - Cooling Tower Design

Abstract - The performance of cooling tower is enhanced by optimizing heat transfer using suitable water distribution across the plane area of cooling tower. The setup is rectangle in shape having 60 cm in width, 30 cm in breadth and 30 cm in height with weight around 2.7 Kg. The model is likely to pour the water in 30 sec with residence time about 1.5 minute. It is fabricated by Aluminium material. This model shows that how natural draft cooling tower performs by implementing the baffles on the plane surface of plate increasing to flowing are available for water and maximum heat transfer area. It ensures thin water layer and good water distribution channels for better heat and mass transfer. A process of heat transfer occurs in which the water is cooled by air naturally. Water drainage is provided at the bottom foe water discharge. This natural draft cooling tower model is tested and suited for cooling one liter water with temperature drop about 25⁰C with minimum collection efficiency of 850 ml. <

Title - Water Soluble Plastics

Abstract - Water Soluble Plastics are composed of 75% polyvinyl alcohol (PVOH) the balance being compound plasticisers and organic additive. PVOH is a colourless, odourless and tasteless synthetic polymer. PVOH is not prepared by polymerization of the corresponding monomer. The monomer, vinyl alcohol, is unstable with respect to acetaldehyde. PVOH instead is prepared by first polymerizing vinyl acetate, and the resulting polyvinylacetate is converted to the PVOH. Polyvinylalcohol has excellent film forming, emulsifying and adhesive properties. It is also resistant to oil, grease and solvents. It has high tensile strength and flexibility, as well as high oxygen and aroma barrier properties. PVOH is nontoxic. It biodegrades slowly, and solutions containing up to 5% PVA are nontoxic to fish. The objective of this study is to synthesise PVOH in the laboratory. We will also study the feasibility of replacing polyethene by polyvinylalcohol as the preferred polymer for day-to-day as well as industrial applications. PVOH could be the answer to all the problems mankind faces today from water logging in cities to loss of marine flora due to ingestion of polyethene based plastic bags and entanglement in polyethene based nets and anglers used for fishing.

Title - Alternatives to Azodyes

Abstract - Azo dyes have revolutionized the world of dyeing. They are one of the fastest, strongest, brightest and cheapest dyes. Methyl yellow, methyl orange, methyl red, congo red and alizarine yellow are some of the examples. Azo dyes are prepared in a two step reaction, the first being the synthesis of an aromatic diazonium ion from an aniline derivative. The next step is coupling of the diazonium salt with an aromatic compound.

However, the azo dyeing process has been harmful in innumerable respects. The compounds like dioxin, formaldehyde etc have carcinogenic effects which are involved in the manufacturing. Many environmental risks arise due to azo dye manufacturing and usage. This scenario, under a smaller scale requirement, has been inviting the utilization of better and friendlier alternatives. Over a study of various azo dyes, many of the natural dyes can used to replace these synthetic ones. These replacements are to be gathered from household wastes, market and food industry disposals.

In this experimental review work, I gathered household and market wastes, in the first place. Accordingly, as per the properties and characteristic coloring, natural dyes have been prepared in the easiest possible ways. Finally, the segregation of these dyes to replace the azo dyes has been carried out. This, in my view, serves two finite purposes of:

  • Reduction and effective utilization of food industry and household waste
  • A replacement of azo dyes by natural alternatives reducing risks and harmful effects of the same

Title - 'Ready-to-eat-food' - Chemical Engineering Technique

Abstract - Amongst the various food processing techniques, osmotic dehydration and puffing are one of the latest techniques used for production of high quality snack products. Osmotic dehydration of fruits increases their shelf life and also increases its sensorial properties and puffing of food grains is done in order to provide a light-in-weight structure to the grain, also a crisp is attained for the same, maintaining the nutritional characteristics of the grains. In osmotic dehydration drying curves are plotted for two samples of papaya cubes and papaya slices and comparison is made between cubes and slices regarding the moisture content, solid content and weight loss. In puffing, the experimentation is performed on the grain, high in protein content known as ‘quinoa’. Various experimental methods applied to other grains (which proved a success in puffing for the grains) are applied to quinoa. The experimental aspects in this project are worked towards the success of the experiments and also increasing the efficiency of puffed quinoa. Thus our project focusses on studying the chemical engineering factors that affect osmotic dehydration and studying of various methods which increases the puffing of food

Title - Extraction of Olive Oil by advanced methods like RSM

Abstract - The optimum conditions for ultrasound-assisted extraction of olive pomace oil were determined by response surface methodology (RSM). The effect of temperature, solid/liquid ratio and particle size was investigated on oil yield, its unsaponifiable matter (USM%), total phenol content (TPC) and antioxidant activity (DPPH). The optimal condition for the oil yield was: temperature, 60 °C, solid/liquid ratio, 1/12 g/mL and particle size, 0.5 mm. At this condition, the oil recovery was 11.03% which well matches with the predicted value. The optimal point for the USM% was achieved when the UAE is carried out at 55 °C using solid/liquid ratio 1/12 g/mL and particle size 0.5 mm. The optimal conditions for TPC of olive pomace oil obtained and its antioxidant activity were as follows: temperature, 50 °C, solid/liquid ratio, 1/8 g/mL and particle size, 0.9 mm and temperature, 55 °C, solid/liquid ratio, 1/8 g/mL and particle size, 0.9 mm, respectively. Close agreement between experimental and predicted values for USM%, TPC and DPPH was found

Title - Use of Ultrafiltration membrane for surface water treatment

Abstract - Use of Ultrafiltration membrane for surface water treatment. In surface water treatment, ultrafiltration (UF) membranes are widely used because of their ability to supply safe drinking water. Although UF membranes produce high-quality water, their efficiency is limited by fouling. Improving UF filtrate productivity is economically desirable and has been attempted by incorporating sustainable biofiltration processes as pretreatment to UF with varying success. The availability of models that can be applied to describe the effectiveness of biofiltration on membrane mass transfer are lacking. In this work, UF water productivity was empirically modeled as a function of biofilter feed water quality using either a quadratic or Gaussian relationship. UF membrane mass transfer variability was found to be governed by the dimensionless mass ratio between the alkalinity (ALK) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC). UF membrane productivity was optimized when the biofilter feed water ALK to DOC ratio fell between 10 and 14

Title - Top level Synthesis of three gemini betaine surfactants and their surface active properties for better use case

Abstract - Three Gemini betaine surfactants bis [N-methylene-N-dimethyl (1-alkyl-1-sodium formate) methine] ammonium bromides (n = 10, 12, 14) were synthesized by substitution reaction, quaternization and neutralization reaction with tetramethylethylenediamine, bromine (Br2), sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and long chain alkyl acid as main raw materials. The chemical structures of the prepared compounds were confirmed by FTIR, 1H NMR, MS spectroscopy and element analysis. With the increasing length of the carbon chain, the values of their CMC (critical micellar concentration) initially decreased. These compounds were superior in surface active properties to single chain betaine surfactant such as decyl dimethyl betaine surfactant. The efficiency of adsorption at the water/air interface (pC20) of these surfactants was very high. The shorter the hydrocarbon chain length of Gemini betaine surfactants, the faster the rate of reduction of surface tension, and smaller the aggregation number of Gemini betaine surfactants. Micelle diameter and maximum wetting angle of pure water drop/air increased, but maximum wetting angle of water phase/n-decane decreased with the increase of the hydrophobic chain length. Their foaming properties toward a felt chip and lime-soap dispersing ability were investigated.