Title - Design and construction of a prototype of Ecosystem to study interactions of various organisms

Abstract - The biosphere is the part of the Earth's atmosphere that supports life and includes both living (biotic) and nonliving (abiotic) things. It includes all the plants, animals, weather and climate. So, what happens when we have too many organisms in one environment? It may get too crowded! We call the number of organisms in a particular environment its population. Populations are made up of all the members of a species living in the same place at the same time. We learn about population numbers, or population density, to help us understand how much of resources (such as food, water and air) are available for each individual organism in an environment. Engineers need to know about the population density and how it is distributed so they can design areas for cities, parks, roadways, and even water systems so enough is available for a community to drink and us.

A Biodome is a model that is designed to represent a particular environment and the community of organisms that live there. Biodomes are used to study ecosystems and attempt to model how living and nonliving things interact in those natural environment. The goal of a biodome is to create an environment that has enough resources for every plant and animal, creating a balance or equilibrium.

This biodome will represent all the different climates and landscapes on the globe on a small scale.It include the Energy flow , plants, animals, decomposition , etc in a system ,would give a short idea about the environment and hence help to solve the problems .


Title - Splitting of water molecules using photocatalysts

Abstract - In the past 45 years, the search for semiconductors as active photocatalysts for overall water splitting has focused on insoluble materials and their hybrids. An important question is whether soluble semiconductors have the capacity for photocatalysis or similar applications. The dissolved semiconductors will lose the energy band structures for light absorption; however, the undissolved part in saturated solution can still generate electrons and holes under illumination. Unfortunately, this possibility has never been realized. Here we clearly demonstrate the use of a water-soluble sodium molybdate salt as an effective photocatalyst. The material can photocatalyze simultaneously the oxidation and reduction of water under band-gap irradiation. We anticipate that, as a large and traditional class of chemical compounds, the soluble semiconductors may have great potential to be applied in numerous important applications such as catalysis, photovoltaics, light emitting diodes and artificial photosynthesis


Title - Removal of Volatile organic compounds by biofiltration

Abstract - Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted to the environment highly probably result in ecological and health risks. Many biotechnologies for waste gases containing hydrophobic VOCs have been developed in recent years. However, these biological processes usually exhibit poor removal performances for hydrophobic VOCs due to the low bioavailability. This review presents an overview of enhanced removal of hydrophobic VOCs in biofilters. Mechanisms and problems relevant to the biological removal of hydrophobic VOCs are reviewed, and then solutions including the addition of surfactants, application of fungal biocatalysts, biofiltration with pretreatment, innovative bioreactors and utilization of hydrophilic compounds are discussed in detail. Future research needs are also proposed. This review provides new insights into hydrophobic VOC removal by biofiltration


Title - Utilization of biochar derived from various materials for bio-filtration purposes

Abstract - The environmental legislation and strict enforcement of environmental regulations are the tools effectively used for developing the market of materials for environmental protection technologies. Sustainability criteria shift environmental engineering systems to more sustainable-material-based technologies. For carbon-based medium materials in biofiltration, this trend results in attempts to use biochar for biofiltration purposes. The paper presents the analysis of biochar properties based on the main criteria for biofiltration medium integrating the environmental quality properties of biochar, following the European Biochar Certificate guidelines. Three types of biochar produced from feedstock of highly popular and abundant types of waste are analysed. A multi component approach was applied to summarize the results. The lignocellulosic type of biochar was found to be more competitive for use as a biofiltration medium than the types of biochar with high ash or lignin content.


Title - Water conservation, sustainability of water (removal of pollutants and monitoring methods for the future of water distribution systems)

Abstract - The lack of proper sanitation services and inadequate drainage system leads to the degradation of the water quality in the water bodies situated near human civilization. There are certain regions that are dependent directly on these water bodies for their needs. The provision of water supply and sanitation services is a vital part of building communities that can make sustainable development.

In India, agriculture is the largest user of water, the water withdrawal for human consumption is substantial at basin level in arid regions. Water conservation can be promoted by installing water saving technologies at the household level, and by educating consumers.

The purpose of this study is to determine the water management options that could be applied to maximize the sustainability of water in the locality. Providing safe and optimum quality drinking water continues to present numerous challenges and opportunities for the water distribution machinery.

It was determined that potential exists for the reuse of effluent and sludge in experimental applications in agriculture, domestic and industrial settings.