Title - Electroconvulsive Therapy

Abstract -This work represents a control system for ELECTROCONVULSIVE THERAPY that is performed under general anesthesia , in which small currents are passed through the brain , intentionally triggering a brief seizure . It seems to cause changes in brain chemistry that can quickly reverse the symptoms of certain mental illness . It often works when other treatments are unsuccessful. ECT is much safer today. Electroconvulsive therapy remains an important therapeutic option in contemporary psychiatric practice. ECT has well defined indications, well defined side effects and established standards for practice. ECT is a medical procedure in which a brief electrical stimulus is used to induce a cerebral seizure under controlled conditions .It’s purpose is used to treat specific types of mental disorders. Electroconvulsive therapy(ECT) has been demonstrated to be an effective and safe treatment for many psychiatric disorders . Use of ECT still generates significant controversy. It has also been perceived as a form of violence against women. It has been negatively portrayed in movies such as ‘One flew over the cuckoo’s nest’, ‘House on haunted hill’ and ‘Requiem for a dream. Although ECT still causes some side effects , it now uses electric currents given in controlled setting to achieve the most benefit with the fewest possible risks. The mechanism of action of ECT , procedure , side effects and other factors will be explained creatively on the poster.

Title - Device To Detect Glucose Level From a normal breath (Breathlyzer)

Abstract - This paper aims to discuss on, one of the outstanding invention’s in the medical field- BREATHALYZER, a device to detect the glucose level with a breath. This is one of the most advanced non-invasive technique of detecting the blood-sugar level. Medical professionals’ researches say that, untreated diabetes can have “fruity” smell. That smell indicates the presence of acetone, the same compound used in some stain and paint removers. When there is a high amount of acetone in our breathe, it indicates ketoacidosis, which in turn can indicate insufficient insulin in the bloodstream to absorb glucose, which is a sign of diabetes. Acetone concentration in the breath varies from 0.3 to 0.9ppm in healthy people to more than 1.8ppm for diabetics. Thus, Acetone is the suitable chemical compound used for the diagnosis of diabetes. Results state that the device can work at room temperature, with a high performance demonstrated by good response, recovery, stability and repeatability. This painless technique will bring in huge advancements in the medical industry for the detection of diabetes.

Title - Use of Nanotechnology for RNA engineering

Abstract - RNA nanotechnology employs synthetically modified ribonucleic acid (RNA) to engineer highly stable nanostructures in one, two, and three dimensions for medical applications. Despite the tremendous advantages in RNA nanotechnology, unmodified RNA itself is fragile and prone to enzymatic degradation. In contrast to use traditionally modified RNA strands e.g. 2′-fluorine, 2′-amine, 2′-methyl, we studied the effect of RNA/DNA hybrid approach utilizing a computer-assisted RNA tetra-uracil (tetra-U) motif as a toolkit to address questions related to assembly efficiency, versatility, stability, and the production costs of hybrid RNA/DNA nanoparticles. The tetra-U RNA motif was implemented to construct four functional triangles using RNA, DNA and RNA/DNA mixtures, resulting in fine-tunable enzymatic and thermodynamic stabilities, immunostimulatory activity and RNAi capability. Moreover, the tetra-U toolkit has great potential in the fabrication of rectangular, pentagonal, and hexagonal NPs, representing the power of simplicity of RNA/DNA approach for RNA nanotechnology and nanomedicine community.

Title - CRISPR-Cas9 - Gene editing technique

Abstract - CRISPR-Cas9 is a faster,cheaper and more accurate gene editing technique and has a wide range of potential applications. It is currently the simplest, most versatile and precise method of genetic manipulation. CRISPR can introduce a change(mutation) in DNA. It basically can cut the DNA at a particular sequence and add or change the sequence. DNA is able to do this by a RNA strand called guide RNA. CRISPR can promote the idea of designer babies, though more focus currently is on animals. Recently CRISPR has led to have TB free cows.The rapid progress in developing Cas9 into a set of tools for cell and molecular biology research has been remarkable, likely due to the simplicity, high efficiency and versatility of the system

Title - Nanoparticles for Delivery Systems

Abstract - Pancreatic cancer (PC) is one of the most deadly and quickly fatal human cancers with a 5-year mortality rate close to 100%. Its prognosis is very poor, mainly because of its hostile biological behavior and late onset of symptoms for clinical diagnosis; these bring limitations on therapeutic interventions. Factors contributing for the difficulties in treating PC include: high rate of drug resistance, fast metastasis to different organs, poor prognosis and relapse of the tumor after therapy. After being approved by US FDA 1997, Gemcitabine (Gem) is the first line and the gold standard drug for all stages of advanced PC till now. However, its efficacy is unsatisfactory, mainly due to; its chemical instability and poor cellular uptake, resulting in an extremely short half-life and low bioavailability. To solve this drawbacks and increase the therapeutic outcome important progress has been achieved in the field of nanotechnology and offers a promising and effective alternative. This review mainly focus on the most commonly investigated nanoparticle (NP) delivery systems of Gem for PC treatment and the latest progresses achieved. Novel nanocarriers with better tumor targeting efficiencies and maximum treatment outcome to treat this deadly due are given much attention

Title - Nanotechnology and Spectroscopy for aiding health services in India

Abstract - The increasing prevalence and use of nanotechnology-enabled consumer products have increased potential consumer exposures to nanoparticles; however, there is still a lack of data characterizing such consumer exposure. The research reported here investigated near-field airborne exposures due to the use of 13 silver (Ag)-based and 5 zinc (Zn)-based consumer sprays. The products were sprayed into a specially designed glove box, and all products were applied with equal spraying duration and frequency. Size distribution and concentration of the released particles were assessed using a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer and an Aerodynamic Particle Sizer. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was used to investigate the presence of metals in all investigated products. Spray liquids and airborne particles from select products were examined using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS). We found that all sprays produced airborne particles ranging in size from nano-sized particles (<100 nm) to coarse particles (>2.5 μm); however, there was a substantial variation in the released particle concentration depending on a product.

The total aerosol mass concentration was dominated by the presence of coarse particles, and it ranged from ∼30 μg/m3 to ∼30,000 μg/m3. The TEM verified the presence of nanoparticles and their agglomerates in liquid and airborne states. The products were found to contain not only Ag and Zn compounds - as advertised on the product labeling - but also a variety of other metals including lithium, strontium, barium, lead, manganese and others. The results presented here can be used as input to model population exposures as well as form a basis for human health effects studies due to the use nanotechnology-enabled products