Title - Evaluating The Effect Of Conservation On Residential Water Demand

Abstract - Utilities and water suppliers in the southwestern United States have used education and conservation programs over the past two decades in an attempt to ameliorate the pressures of increasing water scarcity. This paper builds on a long history of water demand and environmental psychology literature and attempts to answer a simple question: do households primarily motivated by environmental and social (E&S) considerations consume water differently than households motivated primarily by cost and convenience (C&C)? We find that E&S consumers use less water than C&C consumers on average. We also find that there is no statistical difference between E&S and C&C consumers in their consumption responses to changing prices, temperature, and precipitation. This implies that targeting future conservation efforts to self-reported consumer groups may not improve policy effectiveness

Title - Meditron Roboital

Abstract - Conversion of waste plastics (Polypropylene) into hydrocarbon fuel was investigated by using a reactor system which consists of a reactor, a condenser and a liquid-gas separator. A maximum waste to fuel conversion of over 99% has been achieved with approximately 47% of liquid yield and 52% of gas yield. The liquids and gasses obtained from the experiments were analysed using a gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer unit (GC/MS). Analysis results show that the escaped gas is non condensable at ambient temperature and mainly consists of methane, propylene, isobutane and isobutylene. The analysis results also show that the liquid obtained in the experiments consists of many linear, branched and aromatics hydrocarbon compounds in the range of C5 to C10.

Waste polypropylene samples different in weight were used for the experiments to investigate the effects of batch size on the reaction time and the liquid yield at near atmospheric slightly positive pressure. No N2 purging or vacuuming of the reaction zone was used at the start of the experiments. The experimental results showed that the percentage of liquid yield increase with the increase of batch size. The experimental results also showed that the reaction time of 500 g batch size was 100 minutes and that was increased approximately by 15 minutes for every additional 500 g of sample fed into the reactor in respective batches.

Title - Supercritical Fluide Extraction

Abstract - Several separation techniques have been developed for food, pharmaceutical and chemical industries due to the imposed environmental regulation, the necessity of minimizing energy, and public health requirements [1]. The interest in supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) process is primarily due to the ability to recover functional ingredients with high purity [2]. (SFE) has proven to be technically and economically feasible. The advantage of the SFE processes when compared to traditional extraction methods is due to the properties of the supercritical solvent: it presents high mass-transfer capacity, the solvent power can be altered by process conditions (i.e., temperature and pressure), and it can be easily removed from the final extract. These SFE characteristics eliminate the steps of cleaning and purification that are common in conventional processes [3].

However, after three decades of development, there are only about 200 commercial plants in the world, and most of them are located in the developed countries. This may be attributed to the elevated costs of the high-pressure equipment required in the extraction process [4]. For developing countries, adding value to indigenous raw material using an environment friendly technology represents the possibility of increasing its competitivity in the global market of natural products [5]. India with its rich botanical resources has very high potential for the use of SFE to achieve value addition to its traditional export of natural materials in raw form. Thus use of SFE technology can help Indian industry to gain its share in rapidly growing international market for high quality, value added natural products. [6]

The subject matter of this review is to bring attention to the benefits of using SFE and to optimize the capital investment and availability of this technology all over the world.

Title - Integration of Solar Energy to Build Modern GreenHouses in India

Abstract - Given the threat of environmental degradation and land deterioration to conventional agriculture, modern greenhouse cultivation has attracted increasing attention as an effective alternative. However, the high energy consumption of greenhouse systems is concerning given the need to limit the environmental impact of human activities. The solar integration to agricultural greenhouse in the form of modern solar greenhouse has the potential to simultaneously respond to the declining availability of suitable land and the imperative for minimum emissions. In this review, an overview of India’s progress towards the development of modern solar greenhouses, as well as the attempts to mitigate the effects of heat loss, shadowing, and poor light condition is presented.

A promising prospect is shown by India's modern solar greenhouses at present levels of performances and costs exemplified by the photovoltaic (PV) greenhouses with a practicable payback period of less than 9 years. Additionally, application of advanced solar technology for better thermal storage, PV power generating and light utilization balance has been proved effective to further promote solar energy utilization in modern solar greenhouses.

Title - Production of BioFuel from Microalgae

Abstract - Fossil fuels are depleting rapidly and are also the major sources of greenhouse gases, such as CO2 and CH4, which are causing Global Warming. Alternatively, generation of Biofuels from Microalgae is much more efficient to be grown, environmentally safe, efficiently available, and sustainable renewable source of energy. Algae are organisms that grow in aquatic environments and use light and carbon dioxide (CO2) to create biomass. Microalgae are an ideal biodiesel feedstock, which eventually could replace petroleum-based fuel due to several advantages, such as high oil content, high rates of production, less land, etc. Algal biofuel production usually relies on photoautotrophic culture that uses sunlight as a free source of light. Microalgae grow quickly and contain high oil content compared with terrestrial crops, which take a season to grow and only contain a maximum of about 5 percent dry weight of oil. The algae is dehydrated, and then a solvent such as hexane is used to extract energy-rich compounds like triglycerides from the dried material. The oil from the biomass will be removed through Hexane Solvent Method, Soxhlet extraction or Supercritical fluid Extraction and further processed into biodiesel. Then, the extracted compounds can be processed into fuel using standard industrial procedures. Algae-based bio-fuel is a promising energy source that is in the latter stages of development

Title - Comparative Study of Bioremediation of Crude Oil by Bacillus Subtilis and Organic Substances

Abstract - Crude oil serves as a basic component of energy resources of any country or nation, therefore its pollution is no new dilemma over the past few decades. Crude oil contains various compounds which are toxic and set-off contagious effects onto the soil surfaces, even to the areas where it is transported to or utilized. However, the oil spill or transportation accidents can raise major threats to flora and fauna of that particular soil, therefore various techniques have been used and implied for the treatment of oil contamination. Amongst all organic ways of remediation processes, introduction of compost, banana peel, Hibiscus plant and adapted Bacillus subtilis culture has been found notably effective in the bioremediation process of degrading crude oil. Compost’s active micro-flora enhances the soil’s own natural biodegradation process which is a gradual process in general, whereas the biosorption process modulated by the addition of banana peel reacts with the charged particles present in the crude oil in the form of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons. Compost gave highest degradation of crude oil that is 47%.

Phytoremediation through Hibiscus Plant is one of the methods, which removes the oil contamination from the soil commonly proposed by a process known as Rhizodegration (i.e. reaction of microorganisms present at the rhizophore of the plant whose activity is might be enhanced by the root exudates) and Bacillus is one of the good degrader already a part of soil-flora which embellishes its efficiency due to the excess load of bacteria with the oil-consuming adaptation. By applying all the above bio remedial processes, a comparative analysis was done which showed that after compost consumption of crude oil by Bacillus subtilis was 44.86%, then Banana peel gave 37.25 % degradation and Hibiscus plant has shown negligible result that is only 5.8%.

Title - Hydraulic Ram based Micro hydro generator with Pumping and Maintenance through GSM

Abstract - Small hydro generators are cost effective solutions for the ongoing energy demands. We are mostly interested in creating a prototype of energy harvesting through Hydraulic Ram Pump (HRP) and Herons Fountain (HF) combination. The solution provides grid connected as well as battery backup systems. Although solar operated pumps are there, they are not mostly popular among farmers. The HRP system is available worldwide, but there is wastage of water in waste valve in those modules. The HF stops working once the middle container gets empty. The Air-lift pump requires compressed air and commercial products uses electrically operated compressors. The operation and maintenance is also not user friendly. There is no power generation concept used in any of these products.

We have combined the principles of HRP, HF and Air-lift pump. The water wasted in waste valve has been used to provide compressed air naturally and used to rotate the Archimedes Screw generator. The water lifted by HRP has been used to produce energy as well as to maintain the water level in middle container of HF. The water is lifted by combined pneumatic pressure of HF and Air-lift pump and used to produce energy. Power generation concept has been introduced in the module. The Hydro generator control module, Pump control module, Hydro generator maintenance module are developed for overall system control. GSM application have been developed for user remote control. Wifi interface has been provided for system log and data keeping.

Title - Cost analysis and the feasibility of producing fuel from plastic wastes

Abstract - The major issue of plastic waste generation can have a solution by its conversion into valuable fuel. The recycling of waste plastic has few limitations and can sometimes increase the toxicity of the material. Instead, they can be subjected to pyrolysis and produce the desired fuel without generating the SOx, NOx, CO, etc. The beautiful idea of clean and smart India can be created in India with the implementation of the above model

  • To reduce the plastic waste to gain profit from its conversion into fuels
  • To spread the awareness on harm created from incineration and land filling.
  • To learn from the success stories of industries that has implemented the idea.
  • To provide solutions to the issues in implementing such projects in India.
  • To focus on the economic feasibility in India.