Title - Brain-Computer Interfaces

Abstract - Many studies over the past two decades have shown that people and animals can use brain signals to convey their intentto a computer using brain-computer interfaces (BCIs). BCI systems measure specific features of brain activity and translate theminto control signals that drive an output. The sensor modalities that have most commonly been used in BCI studies have been electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings from the scalp and single-neuron recordings from within the cortex. Over the past decade,an increasing number of studies has explored the use of electro-corticographic (ECoG) activity recorded directly from the surface of the brain. ECoG has attracted substantial and increasing interest, because it has been shown to reflect specific details of actual and imagined actions, and because its technical characteris-tics should readily support robut and chronic implementations ofBCI systems in humans. This review provides general perspectiveson the ECoG platform; describes the different electrophysiological features that can be detected in ECoG; elaborates on the signal acquisition issues, protocols,and online performance of ECoG-based BCI studies to date; presents important limitations of cur-rent ECoG studies; discusses opportunities for further research;and finally presents a vision for eventual clinical implementation.In summary, the studies presented to date strongly encourage further research using the ECoG platform for basic neuro scientific research, as well as for translational neuroprosthetic applications.